The best place to begin a tour of Andhra Pradesh
is Hyderabad, the capital. Hyderabad is very well - connected by air,
rail and road to all major cities of India. The other major cities of
the state are Secunderabad, Visakhapatnam, Waltair and Vijayawada. An
efficient road and rail network connects every district to the state
capital. Only Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Rajahmundry, Vijayawada and
Tirupati are airlinked.
Andhra Pradesh has had its name changed
many times. Emperor Ashoka called it 'The Land of the Andhras' the 'Satvahana'
kings who were liberal and secular rulers and invited different
religious people into the state ruled it. During Ashoka's rule, the
state of Andhra Pradesh was a major Buddhist center. Around that time,
the capital of the area was Amravati, where one can still find traces of
the great artistic skills of the builders and artisans of the time.
7th century, the Chalukya kings
ruled over the state. They ruled for about 300 years and lost power
around the 10th century AD to the Chola kings, who came invading
from the south. Then, around the 13th century, the Kakatiyas came into
power. They ruled from Warangal, which is situated in the North East of
Hyderabad. Around this time, Sultans, who tried their luck over Andhra,
were ruling Delhi. However, they could not get a foothold until 1323
AD, when Warangal was captured by Mohammad Bin Tughlag's
army. But soon, the Hindus removed them from power. For the next 200
years, Andhra was popularly known as a part of the Vijayanagar
Empire. These years saw many skirmishes between the Hindus and Muslims.
Finally, in the 2nd half of the 16th century, the Vijaynagar Empire was
removed after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Talikota and
over a period of time, the Qutub Shahi Kings established
themselves at Hyderabad. These kings are known for building the strong
stone fortress of Golconda. Nearby are the impressive tombs of
these Kings. At the end of the 17th century, this dynasty came to an
end, when Andhra was taken over by a General of Aurangzeb. This
general's successors came to be known as the Nizams of Hyderabad
and took over after Aurangzeb's death. They ruled even after the Indian
Independence of 1947. During the 18th century, the French and British
immigrants spread their influence. They made an alliance with the then
Nizam of Hyderabad, around the end of the 18th century. The Nizam gave
the British, the right to trade as well as political control over the
coastal areas of his province.
This helped him retain a certain kind of
independence right through 1947. After Independence, the Nizam wanted to
join Pakistan or keep an independent state, but in 1948, when the
country was in deep chaos, the Indian Government took direct control of
During the rule of the Nizams of Hyderabad
the entire state became poorer and poorer, while the personal wealth of
the Nizams increased. The last Nizam of Hyderabad was known as the
richest man in the world. He had around 11,000 servants and more than
half of his palace was used to store gold and jewellery. His
paperweights were diamonds, the size of eggs, though he himself was
quite a miser. During the rule of these Nizams, Hyderabad changed from
the rest of the state and developed its own distinct manners, language
and accents, cuisine, as well as crafts and festivals.
Hyderabad, the capital of the state was built by Sultan Quli Qutb Shah
for his Hindu wife 'Bhagwati'. He called it 'Bhagyanagar'. Later, he
bestowed upon his wife the title of 'Hyder Mahal' and in this way
Hyderabad got its name. Today, Andhra Pradesh is an 'integral part of
India, and is fast developing to become the forerunner in the field of
Andhra Pradesh is one of the first states in India which was formed only
on the linguistic basis. After India's independence, the andhras, that
is, the Telugu-speaking people (although Urdu is widely spoken in
Hyderabad) were distributed in about 21 districts. Out of them 9 were in
the Nizam's Dominions and 12 in the Madras Presidency. But after an
agitation, on October 1, 1953, 11 districts of the Madras State were
consolidated to form a new andhra State with Kurnool as capital. Later,
on November 1, 1956 the State Reorganization Commission recommended to
enlarge the andhra State by adding nine districts which were in the
Nizam's Dominion. The city of Hyderabad, became the capital of the
enlarged Andhra Pradesh, which was also the capital of the Nizam.
Geography of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh state (2001 provisional pop.
75,727,541), 106,052 sq mi (275,608 sq km), SE India, on the Bay of
The capital is Hyderabad.
The state was created in 1956 from the
Telugu-speaking portions of Madras and Hyderabad states.
Although the interior is mountainous, Andhra
Pradesh is largely on a coastal plain drained by the Penner, Krishna,
and Godavari rivers.
Rice, sugarcane, peanuts, and cotton are raised;
coal, chrome, and manganese are mined. India's largest shipyard is
located in Vishakhapatnam, and a satellite launch center is on
Summer season lasts from March to May with temperatures ranging from 20
to 40 degrees centigrade. June to December is monsoon time and the
weather remains hot and sultry. Winters are pleasant and last from
October to February with temperatures varying from 13 to 32 degree
Roughly, it can be said that rainfall is highest in the north and along
the seaboard, varying between 40 and 45 inches, diminishing as one
travels westward to 35, then 30, then 25, and finally to 20 inches in
the south-western districts.
The Southwest monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of
the state. Two-thirds of the state's rainfall is derived from the South
West monsoon. Chittoor and Nellore districts experience the Northeastern
monsoon that account for about one-third of the total rainfall in Andhra
In coastal areas rainfall is heavy; in some areas on the plateau
especially in the north and west, it is sparse. Most of the region gets
the oncoming monsoon rains from June to September, but the retreating
monsoons around October-December bless the extreme south. The coastal
regions are subjected to storms and cyclones in November-December.
Languages of Andhra Pradesh
Telugu, Urdu, Hindi, Banjara, and English
followed by Tamil, Kannada, Marathi and Oriya.
Main Language :Telugu Language
The Origin of The Language
Teluguis a richly developed language and the biggest linguistic unit in
India, second only to Hindi. Linguistically, the language has deviated a
good deal from its southern sisters - Kannada, Tamil and Malayalam. It's
an old one too, with origins as early as the 1st century AD, or perhaps
even before as one of the later Vedas (700BC) mention the Andhras,
another name for the people of Andhra Pradesh.
Early inscriptions of the language date from
around the 6th century, but a proper literary career starts five
centuries later. The script, almost similar to that of Kannada, took
shape in 1000AD from the Pahlava script of 7AD.
Telugu Translated From Sanskrit
Most literatures began with translations from Sanskrit. So did Telugu
with Nannayabhatta (1020AD), the adikavi or 'first poet' of
Telugutranslating the Mahabharata.It was a unusual translation, with lots of clever
innovations but no deviations from the story. But Nannayabhatta couldn't
complete the job. Tikanna came along sometime in the 13th century and
furthered it. However, it was Yerrapragada (14th century) was
finally able to clinch it. Nannaya, Tikanna and Yerrapragada are known
as the kavitraya or 'the three great poets' of Telugufor this mammoth
effort. Other such translations followed, like Marana's Markandeya
Purana, Ketana's Dasakumara Charita, Yerrana's Harivamsa and others.
Shaivite (in praise of Shiva) works like Sivatattwa Sara, Basavapurana
and Panditaradhya Charitra were a part of this initial stash too.
How To Reach Hyderabad
The Begampet airport is situated 8 km north of Abids. This
airport is the nearest from the capital city of Hyderabad. It is well
connected to most major Indian cities and some cities in abroad. Other
important airports of the state include Tirupati, Vijaywada, and
By Rail: There are three railway stations here - Hyderabad or Nampally,
Secunderabad and Kacheguda. Secunderabad is the main station
from where one can get trains to all major towns/cities of the
The several bus stands in Hyderabad, the main one is the Andhra
Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) Hyderabad/Imlibun
complex at Gowliguda.