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Home>>East India>>Jharkhand

Jharkhand

HISTORY OF JHARKHAND

Jharkhand state which emerged from Bihar is nationally well known for all the low levels of the social sector indicators of poor literacy, dismal health scenario, poor infrastructural facilities, and low levels of skills and lack of sustainable livelihoods. Not limiting to this the dreadful social practices of child and early marriage, large families, dowry and superstitions are entrenched deep into the communities. While this is the larger picture of Jharkhand, Palamau region in Jharkhand surpasses all these social sector indicators even much below the state level indicators.

Palamau district is situation of contrasts. The poor in the region are living in "pincers jaws". On one hand the region is inflicted with geographical disparities as drought prone, hilly and infested with deforestation. On the other hand all the social ills of bonded labour, child labour, child marriage, huge families, migration, debt bondage exist in the region. The moot factor for all the social ills being the strong influence and presence of the feudal system and its land lords. The corollary to feudalism is the rise of extremism in the region. The third most influencing factor is the defunct administration system in the region. The development programs of government don't reach the needy due to various inherent lacunae in the system. Thus the poor and impoverished are subjected to severe hardships.

Alternative For India Development (AID) has been working in the region from the year 1989 onwards through various programs on education, health, livelihood, micro women groups and enterprises on the development side. It has also been actively involved in organizing the village groups on various issues of importance such as land reform, corruption, formation of gram sabhas and working out for the development of their villages and community through their active participation.

The geographical disparities, social disparities, the nexus between the Zamindars, the politicians and the bureaucrats being strong the poor are not able to penetrate into any developmental schemes for their region. There is nobody to listen to their woes and they have to find their own alternative ways and solutions to come out of this vicious cycle in the region.

In the above context the emergence of a community radio program which could effectively voice their needs, concerns and issues effectively has been a boon to the region. The public action programs of Dharna, rallies and village sabhas are the usual means the people in the region starting from the political parties, NGO's and the extremists groups use in the region to show their displeasure, ire and anger on the existing situation in the region according to the context of the organizing agents. But it seems that both the people and administration have got used to this form of representation and slowly it is loosing its importance even though so much resources in terms of time, financial and human resources are invested in this. The initial workshops which were held prior to starting the program had brought out evidence that the people want to use Community Radio as a powerful and strong weapon to give vent to their feelings, frustrations and give a let out to their charged emotions of being neglected through this medium.

 EVENTS


1765 Successful military mobilization to bring Santhal Pargana under British rule.
1772-80 Paharia revolt.
1780-85 Tilka Manjhi led the tribal revolt and managed to injure British army Chief.
1785 Tilka Manjhi hanged to death in Bhagalpur.
1795-1800 Tamar revolt.
1795-1800 Munda revolt under the leadership of Vishnu Manaki.
1798 Chaur revolt in Birbhum Bankura.
1798-99 Bhoomji revolt of Manbhoom.
1800-02 Munda revolt under the stewardship of Dukhan Manaki of Tamar.
1819-20 Munda revolt in Palamau under the leadership of Bhukan Singh.
1832-33 Khewar revolt under the leadership of Bhagirath, Dubai Gosai and Patel Singh.
1833-34 Bhumji revolt under the leadership of Ganga Narain of Birbhum.
1855 Santhals waged war against the permanent settlement of Lord Cornwallis.
1855-60 During late 1850's Sidhu had accumulated about ten thousands Santhals to run parallel govt. against British rule. The basic purpose was to collect taxes by making his own laws. British Govt. had announced an award of Rs. ten thousands to arrest Sidhu and his brother Kanhu. This movement remained very active in Kahalgaon and Raniganj.
1856 Police brigade constituted.
1856-57 Martyr Sahid Lal, Vishwanath Shahdeo. Sheikh Bhikhari, Ganpatrai and Budhu Veer led a movement against the British Govt. in the sepoy mutiny.
1874-99 The period is famous for Birsa Movement.
1874 Kherwar movement shot into fame under the leadership of Bhagirathi manjhi.
1881 Kherwar movement started.
1895-1900 Launching of ULGLAN under the leadership of Birsa.
1912 Bihar bifurcated from Bengal and some parts of Chotanagpur merged into Bengal.
1913 Constitution of Chotanagpur Unati Samaj.
1914 Tana Bhagat movement started which had the participation of more than 26000 tribals.
1915 Publication of Adivasi titled magazine started.
1929 Simon commission presented with a memorandum which demanded the formation of separate Jharkhand State.
1936 Orissa was created as a separate state.
1947 On Dec. 28 All India Jharkhand Party came into inception.
1951 Jharkhand party was elected to Vidhan Sabha as a main opposition party.
1969 Shibu Soren founded the Sonat Santhal Samaj.
1971 A.K.Roy founded the Marxist M.C.C. to demand the separate Jharkhand State.
1973 N.E.Horo named his party as Jharkhand Party and on March 12th he presented the then Prime Minister a memorandum for separate Jharkhand State.
1977 Jharkhand party proposed for separate Jharkhand State which included not only Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana of Bihar but adjoining area of Bengal.
1978 The convention of All India Jharkhand Party was held on May 21.
1978 June 9 came to be co-memorated as Birsa Day.
1980 Establishment of Jharkhand Kranti Dal.
1986 September 25, All Jharkhand Students Union gave its first call for Jharkhand bandh.
1987 Call for boycott of Independence day. The Home Minister of India directed the bihar government to prepare a report on detailed profile of all districts of Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana.
1989 72 hours of economic blockade by AJSU was total success.
1989 6 days of economic.
1994 On Jan 6 Laloo Prasad Yadav declared in Ranchi that Jharkhand Development Autonomous Council bill will be passed in budget session.
1995 Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council was formed which comprised 0f 18 districts of Santhal Pargana and Chotanagpur and Shibu Soren was nominated as the Chairman.
1997 June, Bihar government sanctioned 24 crores for conducting the elections of Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council.
1997 July, Shibu Soren offered support to minority government of Laloo Prasad Yadav with a condition of a separate Jharkhand bill in the Assembly.
2000  2 Aug., The bill to create a separate state of Jharkhand to be carved out of
Bihar was passed in Lok Sabha by voice with two key allies of ruling NDA strongly opposing the measure and the opposition Rashtriya Janta Dal and the CPI - M demanding it to be referred to a Parliamentary Committee. The long cherished demand of people of the region was fulfilled, the celebration was on through out the Jharkhand region.
2000 11 Aug., Parliament today approved the formation of Jharkhand when the Rajya Sabha passed by voice - vote the Bihar reorganisation bill 2000 to carve out the new state out of Bihar.
2000 25 Aug., President Mr. K.R. Narayanan approved the Bihar reorganisation bill 2000.
2000 12 Oct., The center issued the gazette notification starting November 15 to be the appointed date for the formation of new Jharkhand Government.
2000 15 Nov., Jharkhand comes into existence as 28th state of the Union with Prabhat Kumar as Governor and Babulal Marandi as Chief Minister.
   

 
HOW TO REACH JHARKHAND :

By Air
Ranchi is connected by regular Indian Airlines services with Calcutta, Patna, Mumbai, Lucknow and New Delhi.


By Rail
Ranchi is on the South Eastern Railway and is directly connected with Calcutta, Patna, Rourkela, Delhi etc.

By Road
Ranchi is situated on National Highway No.23 & 33 and there are nets of good roads around it. Ranchi is directly connected by regular bus services with all the main places in the state and also outside the state.

While at Ranchi - Ranchi is linked to North, East, West and South by rail and to every important part of the country by road and Patna-Delhi-Mumbai by air. Rickshaws and Tempos are readily available on Rly. Station and bus stands [Birsa {Khadgarha} bus stand and Ratu Bus Stand] to take you to any part of the city almost 24 hours, but avoid late night movements. Rickshaw and reserved tempo fare from both the stands to Albert Ekka (Firayalal) chowk is negotiable which come to Rs. 10/- and 25/- to 35/- respectively. You can have hotels to suit your purse near Rly. Station and Bus Stands. From Ranchi town to different sites of sight seeing, you can have regular bus service or you can charter taxi (private cars) or hire tempo - fare is negotiable.

Luxury hotels, skyscraper offices and air-conditioned shopping, doctors, surgeons and physicians of national repute and their nursing homes and clinics, good hospitals, medicine and diagnostic centers, beauty clinics and such other facilities are enough to assure you to meet any eventualities and thwart your anxieties.

AIR CONNECTION
Ranchi is the only city of Jharkhand which is connected by a daily airbus flight to Mumbai via Delhi, the capital of India. The flight time to, nearest airport, Patna from Ranchi is 45 minutes. It is expected that some more flights will be added soon. Kolkata, overnight by train, is the nearest international airport.

 

More Attractions in Jharkhand  

>> Gonda Hill

>> Ranchi Hill

>> Tagore Hill

 

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