East India
Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand more....
West India
Gujarat, Goa, more....
North India
Delhi, Haryana, Himachal, Punjab more....
South India
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala more....
Central India
Madhya Pradesh
Adventure Wildlife
Deccan Odyssey
Fairy Queen Train
Palace on Wheels
The Royal Orient
World Time
Train Schedule
Currency Info
Distance Calculator
Indian Railway Reservation
Weather Report
STD Code
ISD Code
Packing List
Must Explore
How to reach India
Travel risks
Foreign embassies in India
Indian embassies in Foreign
Facts about India
Visa & passport
Home>>Popular Attractions>>Rivers Tour>>The Ganges River

The Ganges River

The Ganges River

Ganges River, Ganges River tours, Visit Ganges River India, Ganges River Information, Religious place of uttar pradesh
The Ganges is a major river in the Indian subcontinent passing though most of northern India and Bangladesh.
The 2,510 km (1,557 mi) long river begins at the Gangotri Glacier in the state of Uttarakhand in the Central Himalayas, passes though the plains in northern India before draining into the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh. After entering Bangladesh, the main branch of the Ganges is known as Padma River till it is joined by the Jamuna River the largest distributary of the Brahmaputra. Further downstream, the Ganges is fed by the Meghna River, the second largest distributary of the Brahmaputra and takes on its name. Fanning out into the 350 km (220 mi) wide Ganges Delta, it empties out into the Bay of Bengal. Only two rivers, the Amazon and Congo have a higher discharge.

Origin of Ganges
The Ganges originates in the Himalayas at the confluence of five headstreams the Bhagirathi, Mandakini, Alaknanda, Dhauliganga, and Pindar at Devaprayag in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.
At the foothills of the Himalayas (14000 ft) in North Uttar Pradesh, the Gangotri Glacier, a vast expanse of ice five miles by fifteen, is the source of Bhagirathi, which joins with Alaknanda (origins nearby) to form Ganga at the craggy canyon-carved town of Devprayag. From Devprayag to the Bay of Bengal and the vast Sunderbans delta, the Ganga flows some 1550 miles, passing (and giving life to) some of the most populous cities of India, including Kanpur (2 million), Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, and Calcutta (14 million).

The Yamuna, which originates less than a hundred miles east of the Bhagirathi, flows parallel to the Ganga and a little to the south for most of its course before merging with the Ganga at the holy city of Allahabad, also known as Triveni Sangam (literally, Three-way Junction, the third river being the mythical Saraswati which is also supposed to be an underground river). New Delhi, capital of India, and Agra, site of the Taj Mahal, are two of the major cities on the Yamuna.

Course Taken by River Ganges
Follow the river from its origin in the Himalayas all the way to its confluence with the ocean, through ancient pilgrimage towns and cities.

: Gateway to the Himalayas. Experience the might of the Ganges and the serene Ganges River, Ganges River tours, Visit Ganges River India, Ganges River Information, Religious place of uttar pradeshatmosphere of Rishikesh where all Himalayan pilgrimages begin.

Haridwar :
After travelling 200 km through the Himalayas, the Ganges emerges at the pilgrimage town of Haridwar in the Shiwalik Hills. At Haridwar, a dam diverts some of its waters into the Ganges Canal, which links the Ganges with its main tributary, the Yamuna. The Ganges which till this point flows in a south-western direction now begins to flow in a south-eastern direction through the plains northern India. One can visit Haridwar in the foothills of the Himalayas and experience the Aarti to the Ganges, when the entire riverside is lit up with the glow of hundreds of lamps.

Allahabad (Benares) :
From Haridwar the river follows an 800 km (500 mi) winding course passing through the city of Kanpur, before being joined by the Yamuna from the southwest at Allahabad. On the banks of the Ganges, Benares is the most venerated of the pilgrimage sites in India. 

Prayag :
At Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh, the Yamuna merges with the Ganga at Prayag. Prayag is an ancient pilgrimage site and also is the seat of the Kumbha Mela festival occurring once every 12 years.

Tryambakeshwar in Maharashtra :
Where the Godavari is venerated as the Ganga Ganga Sagar - at the confluence of the Ganga with the ocean is an ancient pilgrimage site associated with Kapilamuni.

Dams on the Ganga
There are two major dams on the Ganga. One at Haridwar and other at Farakka close to the point where the main flow of the river enters Bangladesh.

Haridwar dam :
Haridwar dam diverts much of the Himalayan snowmelt into the Upper Ganges Ganges River, Ganges River tours, Visit Ganges River India, Ganges River Information, Religious place of uttar pradeshCanal. This dam was built by the British in 1854 to irrigate the surrounding land. This caused severe deterioration to the wateflow in the Ganga, and is a major cause for the decay of Ganga as an inland waterway.

Farakka dam :
This dam is serious hydroelectric affair at Farakka, close to the point where the main flow of the river enters Bangladesh, and the tributary Hooghly (also known as Bhagirathi) continues in West Bengal past Calcutta. This barrage, which feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a 26 mile long feeder canal, and its water flow management has been a long-lingering source of dispute with Bangladesh, which fortunately is likely to be resolved based on discussions held with the new Hasina government in Bangladesh in 1996 when I.K. Gujral was the Foreign Minister in India, Failure to resolve this has caused harm to both sides of the border for nearly two decades now.

According to Hindu mythology, the Ganges was once a river of heaven that flowed across the sky. It is repeatedly invoked in the Vedas, the Puranas, and the two Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

Ganga is a goddess, Ganga devi, one of two daughters of Meru (the Himalayas), the other being Uma, consort of Shiva. In her youth, Indra had asked for Ganga to be given to heaven to soothe the Gods with its cool waters. The story of its descent to earth appears in slightly different forms in Ramayana (Bala Kanda: Vishwamitra narrates it to the child Rama), Mahabharata (Aranya Parba: Agastya narrates it to Rama), and in the Puranas. These myths are variously dated between 2000 to 400 BC. Lord Vishnu himself bathed in its waters at Haridwar, which is so holy that sins as great as the murder of Brahmins may be washed away by bathing here. Many other tales are associated with the Ganga and points on it.

Ganges River, Ganges River tours, Visit Ganges River India, Ganges River Information, Religious place of uttar pradeshIn a country where practically everything in nature is venerated, the Ganges is most holy.
Water from the Ganga has the recursive property that any water mixed with even the minutest quantity of Ganga water becomes Ganga water, and inherits its healing and other holy properties. Also, despite its many impurities, Ganga water does not rot or stink if stored for several days.

Hindus may travel great distances to scatter the ashes of loved ones in the Ganges. Hindus also believe that the Gangesí divine waters purify those who immerse themselves in her. It is even said that a single drop of Ganges water, carried by the wind over a great distance, can cleanse a lifetime of sins. Hindus also believe life is incomplete without bathing in the Ganga at least once in their lifetime. In most Hindu families, a vial of water from the Ganga is kept in every house. This is done because it is auspicious to have water of the Holy Ganga in the house, and also if someone is dying, that person will be able to drink its water.

Bathing in the Ganga is still the lifelong ambition of many of India's believing masses, and they will congregate on its banks for the tremendously overcrowded Sangam, Sagar Mela or Kumbh Mela which are held on auspicious dates every few years. In 2001, some 20 million people bathed in the Ganges at Allahbad at the most auspicious moment of this festival.

Current Challenges
Ganges River, Ganges River tours, Visit Ganges River India, Ganges River Information, Religious place of uttar pradesh
Today, the greatest threat to Ganges is pollution. The majority of the Gangesí pollution is organic waste, sewage, trash, food, and human and animal remains. City populations along the Ganges have grown at a tremendous rate, while waste-control infrastructure has remained relatively unchanged, over the past century.

Leather industries are the major polluting industries on the Ganga, which use large amounts of Chromium and other chemicals, and much of it finds its way into the meager flow of the Ganga. Unfortunately, this is a boom time for leather processing in India, which many view as a form of eco-environmental dumping on the third world, and with the lax and lubricable implementation systems of the U.P. Government, it does not seem likely that this will go down. The world bank report 1992, which focussed on the environmental issues, mentions the dissolved-oxygen and riverborne decomposing material at two points on the Ganga.

However, industry is not the only source of pollution. Some 300 million gallons of waste go into the Ganges each day due to which recent water samples collected in Varanasi revealed fecal-coliform counts of about 50,000 bacteria per 100 milliliters of water, 10,000% higher than the government standard for safe river bathing. An estimated 80% of all health problems and one-third of deaths in India are attributable to water-borne diseases. In Varanasi, some 40,000 cremations are performed each year, most on wood pyres that do not completely consume the body. Along with the remains of these traditional funerals, there are thousands more who cannot afford cremation and whose bodies are simply thrown into the Ganges.  

Preservation Efforts
In 1985, the Ganga Action Plan has been set up under the Indian Government bureaucracy, and is attempting to build a number of waste treatment facilities, under Dutch and British support, and to collaborate with a number of voluntary organizations. The Plan was devised to clean up the river in selected areas by installing sewage treatment plants and threatening fines and litigation against industries that pollute.  

Almost 20 years later, the plan has been largely unsuccessful. The Western-style treatment plants simply did not meet the needs of the region. Such treatment facilities are designed for use in countries where the supply of electricity is stable, thereís no season of overwhelming monsoon rains, and the population doesnít drink directly from the water source.

Surprisingly, the Hindu political parties in India are not very active in the efforts to clean up the Ganga, and it is not very high in the general religious agenda. Many Indians blame the planís failure on mismanagement, corruption and technological mistakes. A key criticism is that local communities, those most invested in the health of the river, were not included in the planning process.

In contrast to the shortcomings of the governmentís Ganga Action Plan, the citizen-based Sankat Mochan Foundation, started in Varanasi in 1982, has made great strides toward a lasting clean-up of the Ganges. With a dual identity as Hindu priest and civil engineer, the organizationís founder, Veer Bhadra Mishra, has approached the problem from both a scientific and a spiritual perspective. In collaboration with engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, Mishra has proposed an alternative sewage-treatment plan for Varanasi that is compatible with the climate and conditions of India.

The advanced integrated wastewater oxidation pond system would store sewage in a series of ponds and use bacteria and algae to break down waste and purify the water, so it wouldnít need electricity. Sankat Mochan is currently trying to persuade Indiaís central government to adopt the plan.

Sankat Mochanís cleanup program, called Campaign for a Clean Ganga, has achieved tangible results. For example, workers in Varanasi now pick up litter along the riverfront and remove corpses and animal carcasses from the river. Despite the achievements in Varanasi, the clean-up campaign must be a national effort, touching all parts of the river, if it is to be successful.

To raise national awareness, Campaign for a Clean Ganga launched a program in 2002 to raise national awareness, empower local communities to take charge of environmental issues, and build national coalitions of NGOs, industries and local governments.  

The program organized the first national Clean Ganga Day in Calcutta, the first in a series of workshops for civic leaders and the general public, in March 2003.


East India  |  West India  |  North India  |  South India  |  Central India  |   By State  Theme tour  |   Rail tour  |  Travel Links  |  Site Map Contact us